ཡིག་གཟུགས་ཀྱི་འཕེལ་རིམ།

༄༅། གངས་ལྗོངས་ཡི་གེའི་སྣང་བྱེད་ཐོན་མི་སམ་བྷོ་ཊ་མཆོག་གིས་རྒྱལ་པོའི་བཀའ་བཞིན་ཐུགས་བསྐྱེད་ཀྱི་གོ་ཆ་གྱོན། སྙིང་སྟོབས་ཀྱིས་རི་བོ་ཕྲག་ཏུ་བླང་། དཀའ་ཀྱོག་གི་འཕྲང་ཆེན་དུ་མ་བརྒལ་ཏེ། དུས་རབས་བདུན་པ་ཕྱི་ལོ། ༦༣༣ ལོར་རྒྱ་གར་ལ་བཞུད་ཏེ། འཕགས་ཡུལ་གྱི་མཁས་པ་བྲམ་ཟེ་ལི་བྱིན་སོགས་ཀྱི་མདུན་ཡིག་རིགས་དུ་མར་སྦྱང་བརྩོན་གནང་བ་མ་ཟད། མཐར་བོད་རང་གི་སྐད་གཤིས་དང་མཐུན་པའི་ཡི་གེ་འཐུས་སྒོ་ཇེ་ཚང་དུ་བཏང་བའི་མ་ཕྱི་ནི། ཞང་ཞུང་སྨར་ཡིག་དང་། འཕགས་ཡུལ་གྱི་གུབྟ། ལཉྫ། ཝརྟུ་སོགས་བཤད་སྲོལ་མང་དག་ཡོད་ཀྱང་། ཕྱོགས་ཡོངས་ནས་ལེགས་བསྡུས་གནང་ཡོད་པ་སྨོས་མེད་སྙམ་མོ༎
    ད་དུང་ངེས་པར་དུ་ཤེས་དགོས་པ་དང་བཤད་འོས་པ་ཞིག་ལ། ལོ་ངོ་བཞི་སྟོང་སྔོན་གྱི་སྟག་གཟིག་སྤུངས་སོ་ཆེ་ཆུང་དང་། དེ་རྗེས་སྟོན་པ་གཤིན་རབ་ཀྱིས་ཡིག་རིགས་དྲུག་ཅུ་ནང་ཞིག་གསར་གཏོད་གནང་བའི་གྲས། ཞང་ཞུང་སྨར་ཆེན་དང་། སྨར་ཆུང་། གཟི་ཡིག  ལྷ་བབ་ཡི་གེ་སོགས་ད་ཆ་དངོས་སུ་མཇལ་རྒྱུ་ཡོད་པ་འདི་དག་བོད་ཡིག་ཏུ་ཅི་སྟེ་ངོས་མི་འཇི༹ན༎
   ཐོན་མི་ཉིད་ནས་སྲོལ་གཏོད་གནང་བར་དབུ་ཅན་དང་། དབུ་མེད་གཉིས་སུ་ངེས་ལ། ཉིད་ཀྱི་ཕྱག་བཟོའི་དབུ་ཅན་ལ་སྦལ་ནག་ན་ལ་བགྲད་འདྲ་དང་། དེ་རྗེས་བཙན་པོའི་སྐབས་ཀྱི་ཡིག་མཁན། རིན་ཆེན་འབར་ཞེས་པས་སོ་ཕག་གཤིབ་འདྲ། ཆབ་དཀར་བེའུ་ཚེས་བྱ་ཕོ་འཇོལ་འདྲ། དགེ་བསྙེན་དཀོན་མཆོག་དབང་གིས་ནས་སྔོན་སེང་དཀར་ཐོག་བཀྲམ་འདྲ། བྷ་ཤོ་ཁྲམ་མཾ་ཤཱཀྱ་དཀོར་གྱིས་མུ་ཏིག་བསྟར་ལ་བརྒྱུས་འདྲ། ཚེ་སྤོངས་བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱིས་སྦུར་ནག་བགྲད་འདྲ། འདྲེ་བ་ཡོན་ཏན་གྱིས་ཉ་མོ་ཆུ་ནང་ནས་ཕྱུང་འདྲ། གྲ་ཤོད་རྣམས་གཉིས་ཀྱིས་སེང་གེ་གནམ་དུ་མཆོང་འདྲ།"

མཁས་དབང་དུང་དཀར་ཚང་གིས། གྲ་ཤོད་རྣམ་གཉིས་ནི་གྲ་སྐ་བ་དཔལ་བརྩེགས་དང་། ཤོད་བུ་ཅོག་རོ་ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་མཚན་ཞེས་གསུངས་པས། ལོ་ཙཱ་བ་སྐ་ཅོག་ཞང་གསུམ་གྱི་ཡ་གྱལ་སྐ་བ་དཔལ་བརྩེགས་དང་། ཅོག་རོ་ཀླུའི་རྒྱལ་མཚན་གཉིས་ལ་ངོས་འཛིན་དགོས་པར་སྣང་།" ཡང་ཡིག་མཁན་ཀ་ཆུང་གིས་སོ་ཕག་གཤིབ་འདྲར་དཔེ་བྱས་པའི་གསར་བཏོད་ལ་ལེབ་ནི་གྲུ་བཞི་བདེ་ལེགས་ཞེས་བྱུང་། 

   དེ་རྗེས་ཁྱུང་པོ་གཡུ་ཁྲིས་སྔར་ཡོད་ཀྱི་དབུ་ཅན་གྲགས་ཅན་རྣམས་ཀྱི་ལེགས་ཆ་ཕྱོགས་བསྡུས་གནང་སྟེ། ཡིག་གཟུགས་ཀྱི་སྤྱི་ཁོག་གཏན་ལ་ཕབ་པ་ནས་བཟུང་། ད་བར་དབུ་ཅན་འབྲི་སྟངས་འགྱུར་བ་ཆེར་མ་སོང་། འོན་ཀྱང་མདོ་དབུས་ཁམས་གསུམ་གྱི་དབུ་ཅན་འབྲི་སྟངས་ལ་ཁྱད་པར་ཅུང་ཟད་སྣང་སྟེ། དབུས་གཙང་ཁུལ་དུ་དཀར་ཆ་ལས་ནག་ཆ་ཅུང་ཙམ་ཆེ་ལ་ཡིག་འབྲི་ཚོ་བ་ཡོད། ཁམས་བྲིས་སྡེ་དགེའི་ཤིང་དཔར་ལྟར་ན་དཀར་ནག་ཆ་སྙོམས་ཞིང་བརྗིད་ཉམས་ལྡན། དུས་རབས་ཉི་ཤུ་པའི་མཇུག་ཏུ་ཚེ་ཏན་ཞབས་དྲུང་དང་། རྒན་གྲགས་པ་སོགས་ཀྱི་ཕྱག་རྒྱུན་ལ། ཡིག་གཟུགས་ཀྱི་དཀར་ཆ་ཆེ་ལ་ནག་ཆ་ཅུང་ཙམ་ཆུང་བ། རྐང་པ་ཤིན་ཏུ་བརྙན་ཞིང་སྦོ་ལྡུམ་པ། དབུ་ཅན་གྱི་མཇེ༹ས་རྩལ་ཡིག་གཟུགས་ལྟར་གྱུར་ཏེ་དེངས་སང་མདོ་ཁམས་གཉིས་སུ་དར་ཁྱབ་ཧ་ཅང་ཆེ།
    དེ་བཞིན་བསྟན་པ་ཕྱི་དར་ཚུན་དབུ་མེད་ཀྱི་ཡིག་གཟུགས་ལ། ལྡན་མ་རྩེ་མང་གི་ཕྱག་རྒྱུན་ལ་ལྡན་ལུགས་དང་། གཞན་ཡང་ལི་ལུགས་གཉིས་ནས་འཕེལ་རྒྱས་ཆེན་པོ་ཕྱིན་པར། ཁྱབ་ཆེ་བ་དབུས་བྲིས་དང་། ཁམས་བྲིས་གཉིས། དབུས་བྲིས་སམ་གཞུང་བྲིས་ལ། ཚུགས་རིང་། ཚུགས་ཐུང་། དཔེ་ཚུགས། རྒྱུག་ཡིག་གམ་འཁྱུག འཁྱུག་ཆེན། འབྲུ་ཚ་བཅས་དང་། ཁམས་བྲིས་ཕལ་ཆེ་བ་དཔེ་ཚུགས་ཤས་ཆེ་ལ་ཤིན་ཏུ་འཐད་ལྡན་དུ་མཐོང་། དཔེར་ན་ཁམས་ཁྱུང་པོའི་ཁུལ་དུ་རྒུར་ཚ་དང་། ཁྱུང་བྲིས་རིགས་འགའ་ཤས། ཁམས་ནང་ཆེན་ཉེར་ལྔའི་ཁུལ་དུ་ནང་བྲིས་ནོར་བུ་མ་གཙོས་དཔེ་ཚུགས་རིགས་འདྲ་མིན། ཁམས་སྡེ་དགེའི་བྲིས་ཁྲིག་དང་པད་མ་འཁྱུག མགོ་ལོག་དང་ཨ་མདོའི་ཁུལ་གྱི་དཔེ་ཚུགས་བཅས་ཁྱད་ལྡན་དུ་མ་ཡོད། གཞན་ཡང་མཁས་མཆོག་ལོ་པཎ་རྣམས་ཀྱིས་མཇ༹ད་པའི་བློ་ལྡན་ཡིག་གསར་སྣ་ཚོགས་དང་། ལྷ་བབ་ཡི་གེ མཁའ་འགྲོའི་བརྡ་ཡིག གཏེར་ཡིག་འདྲ་མིན་སོགས་ཡིག་གཟུགས་མི་འདྲ་བ་བརྒྱ་ལྷག་ཙམ་དངོས་སུ་མཇལ་རྒྱུ་ཡོད༎  ཡིག་གཟུགས་ཀྱི་སྤྱི་བསྡོམས།  གཟབ་གཤར་རྒྱུག་འཁྱུག་མཛེས་ཡིག་བཅས་།  ལྔ་ལ་བོད་ཀྱི་ཡིག་གཟུགས་འདུས།།   འབྲུག་པ་མི་ཕམ་རྣམ་རྒྱལ་ནས་མཚམས་སྦྱོར་ཞུས༎

 

 

The Development of the Tibetan Script

 

   
    In obedience to the command of his King, the great Thonmi Sambhota, the pioneer script designer of the Land of Snow, arrived in India in the year 633 CE (7th Century) after crossing many difficult and treacherous paths, bearing the burnished armor of his aspirations and a mountain of courage on his shoulders.  

 

    Not only did he learn a number of languages from Indian scholars such as Brahman Licin and others, but he also invented a comprehensive system of script compatible with the characteristics of the spoken language of Tibet.

 

    There are various views about which script he used as a model. Some say it was the script of Zhangzhung, while others say it was an Indian script: Gupta, lañja, wartu, or one of the others. In any case, it is evident that he compiled the best feature from each of them.  

 

    Moreover, to mention something that ought to be more widely known: the scripts of Zhangzhung and Takzig are 4,000 years old, and they are still around. Why don’t we recognize them as Tibetan scripts?

 

    As for the scripts that were invented by Thonmi Sambhota, there are two variations, ücan (headed script) and ümed (unheaded script). The ücan he designed resembles a black frog stretching its limbs in water.

 

    After him, during the reigns of the Mighty Kings, a calligrapher known as Rinchen Bar created a script that resembles an intricate alignment of bricks.

 

   Chabkar Beutse created one that resembles a rooster trotting.  Genyen Konchok Wang created one that resembles grains of barley spread across a piece of sheer white cloth.

 

    Bhasho Tham or Shakya Kor created one that resembles a string of pearl beads. Tshepong Jangchub created one that resembles a beetle stretching its limbs. Dewa Yonten created one that resembles a fish being pulled out of water. Dagoe Nam Nyi created one that resembles a lion leaping through the air, and a calligrapher known as Kachung used the alignment of bricks as a model and created a script named ‘gru bzhi bde legs.’ Four Cornered Goodness.  

 

    Later on, Kyungpo Yutrih compiled the best features of all existing ücan scripts and created one main script. Since then, no major modifications have been made until now. However, there are some minor differences in the style of writing ücan in the Amdo, Ütsang and Kham regions.

 

    For instance, in Ütsang, the black part of the script is slightly heavier than the white part, and it is written bold. In Kham, as it appears in the wood blocks of Dege, the white and black parts are equal and the script has an elegant look.

 

    By the end of the 20th century, Tseten Zhabdrung, Gen Dragpa and others came out with a style in which the black parts of the scripts are slightly smaller than the white parts. The legs are very stylish and the middle parts are inflated and rounded.

 

    During the later spread of Dharma in Tibet, the üme script came into existence. Based on the Den Tradition of Denma Tsemang and the tradition of Li, a great number of scripts were created. Of them all, the most popular are üdri and kham dri, the Central and Kham styles of üme scripts.

 

    The Central style includes the tshug ring, tshug thung, pe tshug, gyug yig or khyug, khyug chen and dru tsha styles.

 

   The styles in Kham are mostly for writing scriptures. Apparently, they are very apt for this purpose, for instance the style called gur tsa in Kham Khyungpo, as well as some of the other scripts of Khyungpo style. In the area of Kham Nangchen, there are many different üme scripts for text writing, the main one being nang dri nor bu ma. In the area of Kham Dege, there are the scripts called dri trihg and pema khyug. In Kham Golog and Amdo they have their own unique script styles.

 

    In addition to all these, there are myriad new scripts created by the learned translators and scholars. There are Dakinis’ coded scripts and various terma scripts; more than a hundred variations can be seen even to this day.    By Drukpa Mipham Namgyal
 

The Takzik Pungyik (The Captital Letter Style )

The earliest Tibetan writing was called the Takzik Pungyik around 4000 years ago. It originated from the Indian Lenza writing, thus resembles Lenza style much.

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The Takzik Pungyik (The Small Letter Style )

The earliest Tibetan writing was called the Takzik Pungyik around 4000 years ago. It originated from the Indian Lenza writing, thus resembles Lenza style much.

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The Mayik 

The Mayik is devided into Marchen and Marchung, means the Greater and the Lesser .It was created by the founder of Bon religion, Tonpa Shenrab and was utilized for religional purpose only at the Shangshung Age.

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The Ziyik (Agate Style Writing)

The Ziyik writing was named for its resemblance to the beautiful precious stone agate. It was an  artistic style writing in the Shangshung Age.

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Lhabab Yige (the Descending God Style Writing)

The Lhabab Yige writing originated in Shangshung age. It is the other writing style of Mayik, thus was considered as New Mayik or Artistic Mayik.

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The Maryik Writing

It originated at the golden age of Bon religion in Shangshung, however little information was gained about this writing style so far.

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The Uchen Writing System (With the Head)

The Uchen writing style was created by Sambhota in Phabongka in 7th century. It was named as Black ToadStyle for its resemblance to a crouching toad in the meadow. It was divided into 8 different styles unified by a scholar named Kyungpo Yutri in the mid-13thcentury.

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Six Syllable Mantra

The six syllable mantrawriting was first presented to the King Songtsen Gampo by Sambhota as the innovative piece of work after his long hard working on the development of Tibetan script. Unfortunately the original writing was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution.

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The Square Brick Style

(First of the 8 Uchen Styles)

It was developed by a well known calligrapher Cha Ngar Rinchen Bar around 650-676 A.D based on the UchenToad Style which was originally created by Sambhota. It was named for its resemblance to the neatly laid square bricks. 

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The Crowing Cock Style

(The second of  the Uchen styles)

It was created by a well known calligrapher Chabkar Beutse around 679-704 A.D. It was named for its resemblance to a crowing cock with slightly lowered wings.

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The Scattered Grain Style

(The 3rd of the Uchen Styles)

It was created by a well known calligrapher Ge-Nyen Knonchok Wang around 705-755 A.D. It was named for its resemblance to the scattered grains on a white carpet.

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The Pearl Bead Style

(The 4th of the Uchen Styles)

It was created by a well known calligrapher Bhaksho Tram(also Shakya Kor) around 755-780 A.D. The writing letters resemble the pearl beads, thus the name was given. 

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The Grasshopper Style

(The 5th of the 8 Uchen styles)

It was created by a well known calligrapher Tsepong Changchub around 780-797 A.D. It was also called as Kham Style for it originated and widely spread at KhamRegion.

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The Jumping Fish Style

(The 6th of the Uchen Styles)

It was created by a well known calligrapher DewaYonten around 804-815 A.D. The name was given for the letters resembling fish jumping out of the water.

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The Rising Lion Style

(The 7th of the Uchen Styles)

It was created by a couple of well known calligraphers Dra and Shon around 815-836 A.D. The historical records stated that the original handwriting was carved on the wall of Sha Lhakhang Temple, however no sign could be found so far.

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The Flat Square Style

(The 8th of the 8 Uchen Styles)

It was created by a well known calligrapher Kakyung in 953 A.D, based on the Square Brick Style in the Latter Prosperity Time of Buddhism, so it was named as Flat Square Style.

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The Kyungdri Style

In the mid-13th century, a great calligrapher Kyungpo Yutri standardized all various Uchen styles into one unified versionthus was known as the Kyungdri Style.

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Nub Sangye Yeshes Style

It was created by Nub Sangye Yeshe during the famous Tibetan King Trisong Detsens time. Writings carved on the wall of the Gongkar Chode monastery in Lhoka representing this style.

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The Ume Writing System (Headless Style)

It was historically recorded that the Ume writing style was derived from the Indian script Watu by Sambhota. It was standardized and developed by two famous calligraphers Denma Tsemang and Lelugpa. However,only Denma style is remained. In the 15th century, Rabten Kunsang edited a famous book <On the Pen>, improved and unified Ume style further.

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The Ume Writing of Tume Sambhota

This is the copy piece of the precious Tume Sambhotas writing on the jewel box placed in Dalai Lamas bedroom, the Potala Palace.

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The Denma Style

The Denma style (a variant of Ume style) was created by Denma Tsemang, well preserved till today. While the other cognate writing Lelugpa was lost. During the Ganden Phodrang Period, Eri and Shungri, subdivided from Denma style became the commonest writing in the Tibetan society.

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The Basic Letters

It resembles the regular scripts of the Chinese calligraphy, usually chosen by the beginners for preliminary writing practice for it is good at laying solid foundation.

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The Cursive Hand Style

It was developed from the Small Basic Lettersappears a vivid and facile quality, thus was named as Cursive Hand Style as well. The strokes of the capital scripts wereconnected more than that of the small ones. In the 20thcentury, the 13th Dalai Lama standardized the Tibetan Orthographic writing, the development of Drutsa and theCursive Hand Style reached its peak consequently.

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The Drutsa Style

It is divided into three stylesthe round tailed, the long tailed and the short tailed, either of them representing anelegant, even and formal quality. 

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The Long Tailed Drutsa

The union of Uchen and Ume style, for its long and straight strokes resembling the neatly lined up prayer flags, thus the name was given. Mainly used in the Sakya Panditas time.

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The Round Tailed Drutsa

It originated in the late Sakya Dynasty, widely utilized in official documents, notices and stone tablets. 

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The Short Tailed Drutsa

It originated in Ganden Dhodrangs ruling time, mainly used in official documents.

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The Petsuk Style

It was created by the foremost buddhist scripturetranslator Lotsawa Rinchen Sangpo, in the mid- 13thcentury, 700 years ago, aiming to facilitate the large copywriting of the buddhist scripture. It was spread all over Tibet consequently, well accepted by the scholars and the lovers of Tibetan calligraphy. 

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The Abbreviation Style

During the 200 years among the late prosperity time of Buddhism, the buddhist scripture translators created a new abbreviated writing style to facilitate the large amount of the buddhist scripture copywriting. Unquestionably, it is a great improvement and innovation in the Tibetan calligraphic history.

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The New Styles

During the 13th to 17th century, there was a boom of the creation of new style with the reference to Sanskrit and other regional scripts.The New Style scripts presented a very high ornamental value, they were: the Phagpa Style, the Dorden style, the Golo Style, the Chaglo Style and the Rin Pong Pa Style,etc.

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The Phagpa Style

Phagpa, 1230-1280 A.D, the fifth patriarch of The Sakya Dynasty. He was a dharma master, a prestigious scholar and a distinguished calligrapher. He created the famous Phagpa Style Writing, which was square, written according to the order of top to bottom, left to right, vowels placed underneath.

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The New Mongolian Script

It was created by Phagpa, the fifth patriarch of The Sakya Dynasty, under the order of Khublai Khan, the Yuan emperor. It was utilized as official scripts of the imperially sealed edicts. It represented a luxuriant and elegant quality, some Tibetan monasteries even had it carved on front gate for decorations.

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The Dorden Style

It was a variant of Ume Style, created by a well known calligrapher Dorden in the mid - 15th century.

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The Golo Style

It was derived from Uchen Style, created by a great buddhist scripture translator Go Lotsawa Shonupal in the mid 15th century.

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The Chaklo Style

It was a new script figuration, belonging to Ume style, created by a great buddhist scripture translator Chaklo in the 15th century. 

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The Kyoklo Style

It was developed from Uchen style, created by a calligrapher named Kyoklo Ngawang Tseten.

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The Ngotsar Yigsar Style (The Wonderous New Style)

It was recorded in the book <The Calligraphy Copybook of The Indian, Chinese, Russian, Kashmiri, Nepalese, Tibetan and Mongolian> that Tibet was in possession of a new style writing---The Ngotsar Yigsar Style.

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The Rinpung Style

It was created by Rinpung Ngawang Jigdrak, the last man in authority of the Rinpung Regime in the mid-16thcentury. He was also prestigious calligrapher, the author of two well known books <Roar of The Fearless Lion> and <The Ear Ornament of the Sages>.

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The Rinpung Russian Style

It was created by Rinpung Ngawang Jigdrak, the last ruler of the Rinpung Regime in the mid-16th century in reference of the Russian scripts.

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The Rinpung New Letter Style

It was created by Rinpung Ngawang Jigdrak, the last ruler of the Rinpung Regime in the mid-16th

Century. Reputedly, the new script form was connected with the pronunciation of the Tibetan alphabet.

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The Rinpung Uchen Style

It was created by Rinpung Ngawang Jigdrak, the last ruler of the Rinpung Regime in the mid-16th

Century. It was a variant of Uchen Style.

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The Loden Style

A variant of Uchen Style, was created by the great calligraphy master Tseten Shabdrung. It resembles the Rising Lion Style of the Former Prosperity Time of Buddhism.

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The Sharyik Style

According to the recent academic research, the Sharyik style has high possibility to be the innovated version of Uchen Style, was created in the Latter Prosperity Time of Buddhism.

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The Dayik Style

It was a short hand style with a high generality, confidentiality and facility. One Dayik script was possibly to be transcribed into a dozen or dozens of letters which could even build a sentence or a paragraph. It was shorter than the Abbreviation Style and more classified than the ciphertext.

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The Trulyik (The Disguised Letter) Style

The name was given for two reasons: One is that the letters were written in secret codes; The other reason is that the scripts bore a likeness to water ripples and flame. The Trulyik implied the meaning of unpredictable and mysterious as well.

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The Teryik (The Hidden Calligraphic Treasures) 

In Tibetan cultural history, a variety of splendid writing forms and Dharma related calligraphy works werecreated based on Sambhotaoriginal version, however due to various reasons they were not unveiled to the light but concealed among the rocks, the snow mountains, or at the riverbanks, in deep caves, the fields and even the private abodes.

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The Prefix 

A variant of the letter Yig go-Wu tag, indicatthe starting of an article or a stanza, and present the façade and felicity of the book as well. Various writing styles have various corresponding prefixes.

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The Tibetan Writing Marks

During the first 200 years of the Latte Prosperity Time of Buddhism, a variety of Tibetan writing marks were created and utilized.

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The Numerical Codes of Tibetan Writing (Ang-Yik)

To encode the certain Tibetan letters in sequence or into groups, then transcript these codes into proper writing, its named as Ang-Yik, the Numerical Codes of Tibetan Writing. All codes were systematized in a standard and concise way.

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The Broken Sequence Writing

To break and rearrange the sequence of the writing letters, it was called as The Broken Sequence Writing. There were many ways of the order disrupting: two letters interval, three letters interval, four letters interval, fifteen letters and thirty letters interval,etc.

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Gyalmo Tsawarong Writing

It was found in the woodblock printed book <The Writing Copy of Tibetan Calligraphy>, Kumbum Monastery in Qinghai Province. However, further and more study and investigation on this writing style is needed.

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The Lenze Style

This Lenza writing was a copy from the original version of the great master Tseten Shabdrung,

who was born in Xinhua County, Qinghai Province in 1910. He was one of the most glorified Tibetan calligrapher and writer of the 20th century.

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